Federal Immigration programs
The goal of most immigrants to Canada is to acquire citizenship. In order to qualify for citizenship in Canada, permanent residents must maintain their permanent residence status, and they must remain physically in Canada for 3 years out of the previous 5 years, prior to applying. Time in Canada prior to becoming a permanent resident may also be included at a rate of one day for every two days in Canada, up to a maximum of one year.
Once they have fulfilled the residency requirement they can apply for citizenship through the processing centre in Sydney, Nova Scotia. These applications can take 12 months or less to process and applicants between the ages of 18 and 54 must pass a knowledge test in English or French. Applicants who have problems passing the written test may be examined by way of an oral exam with a Citizenship Judge.